Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study

Milena Falcaro, Andrew C. Povey, Anne Fielder, Elizabeth Nahit, Andrew Pickles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper illustrates how to estimate cumulative and non-cumulative treatment effects in a complex school-based smoking intervention study. The Instrumental Variable method is used to tackle non-compliance and measurement error for a range of treatment exposure measures (binary, ordinal and continuous) in the presence of clustering and dropout. The results are compared to more routine analyses. The empirical findings from this study provide little encouragement for believing that poorly resourced school-based interventions can bring about substantial long-lasting reductions in smoking behaviour but that novel components such as a computer game might have some short-term effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-477
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009


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