Estimation of the Respiratory Rate from Localised ECG at Different Auscultation Sites

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The respiratory rate (RR) is a vital physiological parameter in prediagnosis and daily monitoring. It can be obtained indirectly from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using ECG-derived respiration (EDR) techniques. As part of the study in designing an early cardiac screening system, this work aimed to study whether the accuracy of ECG derived RR depends on the auscultation sites. Experiments were conducted on 12 healthy subjects to obtain simultaneous ECG (at auscultation sites and Lead I as reference) and respiration signals from a microphone close to the nostril. Four EDR algorithms were tested on the data to estimate RR in both the time and frequency domain. Results reveal that: (1) The location of the ECG electrodes between auscultation sites does not impact the estimation of RR, (2) baseline wander and amplitude modulation algorithms outperformed the frequency modulation and band-pass filter algorithms, (3) using frequency domain features to estimate RR can provide more accurate RR except when using the band-pass filter algorithm. These results pave the way for ECG-based RR estimation in miniaturised integrated cardiac screening device.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78
Number of pages11
Issue number1424-8220
Publication statusPublished - 25 Dec 2020


  • respiratory rate
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • ECG derived respiration (EDR)
  • auscultation sites


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