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Ethnic Differences in and Childhood Influences on Early Adult Pulse Wave Velocity: The Determinants of Adolescent, Now Young Adult, Social Wellbeing, and Health Longitudinal Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

J. Kennedy Cruickshank, Maria J. Silva, Oarabile R. Molaodi, Zinat E. Enayat, Aidan Cassidy, Alexis Karamanos, Ursula M. Read, Luca Faconti, Philippa Dall, Ben Stansfield, Seeromanie Harding

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1141
Number of pages9
Issue number6
Early online date2 May 2016
Accepted/In press10 Mar 2016
E-pub ahead of print2 May 2016
Published1 Jun 2016


King's Authors


Early determinants of aortic stiffness as pulse wave velocity are poorly understood. We tested how factors measured twice previously in childhood in a multiethnic cohort study, particularly body mass, blood pressure, and objectively assessed physical activity affected aortic stiffness in young adults. Of 6643 London children, aged 11 to 13 years, from 51 schools in samples stratified by 6 ethnic groups with different cardiovascular risk, 4785 (72%) were seen again at aged 14 to 16 years. In 2013, 666 (97% of invited) took part in a young adult (21-23 years) pilot follow-up. With psychosocial and anthropometric measures, aortic stiffness and blood pressure were recorded via an upper arm calibrated Arteriograph device. In a subsample (n=334), physical activity was measured >5 days via the ActivPal. Unadjusted pulse wave velocities in black Caribbean and white UK young men were similar (mean±SD 7.9±0.3 versus 7.6±0.4 m/s) and lower in other groups at similar systolic pressures (120 mm Hg) and body mass (24.6 kg/m2). In fully adjusted regression models, independent of pressure effects, black Caribbean (higher body mass/waists), black African, and Indian young women had lower stiffness (by 0.5-0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-1.1 m/s) than did white British women (6.9±0.2 m/s). Values were separately increased by age, pressure, powerful impacts from waist/height, time spent sedentary, and a reported racism effect (+0.3 m/s). Time walking at >100 steps/min was associated with reduced stiffness (P

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