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Evaluation of aortic stenosis: From Bernoulli and Doppler to Navier-Stokes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Accepted/In press2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: BHF Translational Award Ref: TG/17/3/33406; EU's Horizon 2020 R&I programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie g.a. No 764738; Wellcome Trust/EPSRC Centre for Medical Engineering (WT 203148/Z/16/Z); P.L. holds a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship (209450/Z/17/Z). Publisher Copyright: © 2021

King's Authors


Uni-dimensional Doppler echocardiography data provide the mainstay of quantative assessment of aortic stenosis, with the transvalvular pressure drop a key indicator of haemodynamic burden. Sophisticated methods of obtaining velocity data, combined with improved computational analysis, are facilitating increasingly robust and reproducible measurement. Imaging modalities which permit acquisition of three-dimensional blood velocity vector fields enable angle-independent valve interrogation and calculation of enhanced measures of the transvalvular pressure drop. This manuscript clarifies the fundamental principles of physics that underpin the evaluation of aortic stenosis and explores modern techniques that may provide more accurate means to grade aortic stenosis and inform appropriate management.

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