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Evaluation of dental adhesive systems incorporating an antibacterial monomer eugenyl methacrylate (EgMA) for endodontic restorations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e239-e254
JournalDental Materials
Early online date27 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - May 2017


King's Authors


Objective The purpose of this study was to incorporate EgMA, an antibacterial monomer into two commercial dental adhesive systems for their application in endodontic restoration with the aim to disinfect the root canal space before curing and to inhibit bacterial growth on their surfaces after being cured. Methods EgMA monomer was added at 20% wt. into the formulation of the single-component self-etch, Clearfil Universal Bond™ (CUB) and into the catalyst and the adhesive components of the total-etch Adper Scotchbond-multipurpose™ (SBMP) adhesive systems. The degree of conversion (DC) was calculated from FTIR spectra, glass transition temperature (Tg) determined by DSC, water sorption and solubility were measured gravimetrically, and surface free energy (SFE) via contact angle measurements. The bonding performance to coronal and middle root canal dentin was assessed through push-out bond strength after filling the canals with a composite core material and the surface integrity was observed using SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The standard agar diffusion test (ADT) was used to identify the sensitivity of three endodontically pathogenic bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Propionibacterium acnes to uncured EgMA modified adhesives. Multispecies biofilm model from these strains was grown on the disc surface of cured adhesives and investigated using quantitative microbial culture and CLSM with live/dead staining. MTT assay was also used to determine the cytotoxicity of these adhesives. Results The incorporation of EgMA lowered polymerization exotherm and enhanced the hydrophobic character of these adhesives, without changing the DC and Tg in comparison to the controls (without EgMA). The total push-out bond strengths of the EgMA-containing adhesives were not significantly different from those of the controls (p > 0.05). The modification of self-etch adhesive system enhanced the bond strength in the middle region of the roots canal. SEM of debonded specimens and CLSM examination showed the integrity of the resin-dentin interfaces. For all three bacteria tested, the sizes of the inhibition zones produced by uncured EgMA modified adhesives were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than those of the controls. The results of biofilm inhibition tests showed less CFU for total bacteria on bonding agents with EgMA compared to the control materials (p < 0.05). The modification at 20% monomer concentration had no adverse effects on cytocompatibility of both adhesives tested. Significance The inclusion of EgMA endows dental adhesives with effective antibacterial effects without influencing their curing properties, bonding ability to root canal dentin, and cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts, indicating the usefulness of their application in endodontic restorations.

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