Evaluation of the Warrior Programme intervention among UK ex-service personnel

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BACKGROUND: Research has shown that of the myriad services available to veterans in the UK, very few have been independently evaluated. This report presents the results of a randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of Time Line Therapy™ delivered by the Warrior Programme (a third-sector organization). AIMS: This study was aimed to determine if the intervention is effective in reducing emotional and functional difficulties in ex-service personnel. METHODS: A mixed-design analysis of variance model was used to investigate whether the Warrior Programme had a statistically significant impact on self-reported scores. The intervention and control group provided data on measures prior to and immediately after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Those in the intervention group (n = 23) reported statistically significant improvements in self-reported scores immediately following intervention: the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) scores (CORE global distress mean difference [MD] = 45.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 31-60) (CORE subjective well-being MD = 5.9, 95% CI 3.5-8.3) (CORE functioning MD = 16.7, 95% CI 11.4-21.9) (CORE problems/symptoms MD = 19.4, 95% CI 13.1-25.7), general self-efficacy (MD = -9.8, 95% CI -13.6 to -6.8), anxiety (MD = 8.6, 95% CI 5.2-12.1), depression (MD = 10, 95% CI 6.6-13.5), post-traumatic stress disorder (MD = 26.3, 95% CI 17-25) and functional impairment (MD = 11.1, 95% CI 5.3-16.8) over time, compared to the control group (n = 29). However, score improvement was not sustained over time or statistically significant at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The Warrior Programme was effective in reducing emotional and functional difficulties in ex-service personnel immediately after the intervention, but the effect was not sustained at 3-month follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-98
Number of pages8
JournalOccupational medicine (Oxford, England)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2022


  • Emotional outcomes
  • ex-service personnel
  • functional outcomes
  • intervention
  • RCT


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