Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction (CAID) contributes to disease progression and organ failure development. We interrogated immune system function in nonseptic compensated and decompensated cirrhotic patients using the TruCulture whole blood stimulation system, a novel technique that allows a more accurate representation than traditional methods, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture, of the immune response in vivo. Thirty cirrhotics (21 decompensated and 9 compensated) and seven healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Whole blood was drawn directly into three TruCulture tubes [unstimulated to preloaded with heat-killed Escherichia coli 0111:B4 (HKEB) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] and incubated in dry heat blocks at 37°C for 24 h. Cytokine analysis of the supernatant was performed by multiplex assay. Cirrhotic patients exhibited a robust proinflammatory response to HKEB compared with HCs, with increased production of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-λ1, and to LPS, with increased production of IFN-λ1. Decompensated patients demonstrated an augmented immune response compared with compensated patients, orchestrated by an increase in type I, II, and III interferons, and higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 post-LPS stimulation. IL-1β, TNF-α, and IP-10 post-HKEB stimulation and IP-10 post-LPS stimulation negatively correlated with biochemical markers of liver disease severity and liver disease severity scores. Cirrhotic patients exposed to bacterial products exhibit an exaggerated inflammatory response orchestrated by IFNs, IL-6, and IL-8. Poststimulation levels of a number of proinflammatory cytokines negatively correlate with markers of liver disease severity raising the possibility that the switch to an immunodeficient phenotype in CAID may commence earlier in the course of advanced liver disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Decompensated cirrhotic patients, compared with compensated patients, exhibit a greater exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial products orchestrated by interferons, IL-6, and IL-8. Postbacterial product stimulation levels of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines negatively correlate with liver disease severity biomarkers and liver disease severity scores raising the possibility that the switch to an immunodeficient phenotype in cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction may commence earlier in the course of advanced liver disease.
|American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
|Early online date
|5 Apr 2022
|Published - 1 May 2022
- cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction
- decompensated cirrhosis