Examining the influence of rurality on frequency of cannabis use and severity of consequences as moderated by age and gender

Christina Schell, Alexandra Godinho, John A. Cunningham*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Aim: A number of important health disparities associated with place of residence have been reported in the literature. The Remoteness Index (RI) was developed to account for community size, population density, and proximity to larger population centres. This exploratory analysis uses the RI to examine community level associations related to cannabis use. Design: This secondary analysis uses data collected as part of a randomized controlled trial of a brief cannabis intervention. Participants’ place of residence was matched to a corresponding value on the RI. Univariate regressions of RI and cannabis related outcomes were modeled with age and gender as moderating variables. Three outcomes were analyzed separately: 1) total number of days of cannabis use in the past 30 days; 2) risk of experiencing cannabis related problems; and 3) number of self-reported consequences related to cannabis. Findings: Participants living in more remote areas were significantly more likely to drive within an hour of using cannabis, but also reported fewer consequences and less risky cannabis use. Although the overall regression models tested in the moderation analyses were significant, there were no interaction effects between RI and age or gender. Conclusion: While this analysis did not find significant conditional effects of age or gender on the relationship between cannabis use and place of residence, further research is needed to investigate other factors which may contribute to health disparities related to substance use between individuals living in different geographic regions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107385
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Accessibility
  • Cannabis
  • Gender differences
  • Index of remoteness
  • Moderation analysis
  • Remoteness
  • Rural
  • Urban


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