Extended reality (XR), which encompasses virtual, augmented and mixed reality, is an emerging medical imaging display platform which enables intuitive and immersive interaction in a three-dimensional space. This technology holds the potential to enhance understanding of complex spatial relationships when planning and guiding cardiac procedures in congenital and structural heart disease moving beyond conventional 2D and 3D image displays. A systematic review of the literature demonstrates a rapid increase in publications describing adoption of this technology. At least 33 XR systems have been described, with many demonstrating proof of concept, but with no specific mention of regulatory approval including some prospective studies. Validation remains limited, and true clinical benefit difficult to measure. This review describes and critically appraises the range of XR technologies and its applications for procedural planning and guidance in structural heart disease while discussing the challenges that need to be overcome in future studies to achieve safe and effective clinical adoption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1405-1419
Number of pages15
Issue number7
Early online date27 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


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