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Extreme reductions of entropy in an electronic double dot

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Shilpi Singh, Edgar Roldan, Izaak Neri, Ivan M Khaymovich, Dmitry S Golubev, Ville F Maisi, Joonas T Peltonen, Frank Juelicher, Jukka P Pekola

Original languageEnglish
Article number115422
Number of pages16
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Accepted/In press20 Feb 2019
Published18 Mar 2019


King's Authors


We experimentally study negative fluctuations of stochastic entropy production in an electronic double dot operating in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. We record millions of random electron tunneling events at dierent bias points, thus collecting extensive statistics. We show that for all bias voltages the experimental average values of the minima of stochastic entropy production lie above -k_{\rm B}, where k_{\rm B} is the Boltzmann constant, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions for nonequilibrium steady states. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the experimental cumulative distribution of the entropy production minima is bounded, at all times and for all bias voltages, by a universal expression predicted by the theory. We also extend our theory by deriving a general bound for the average value of the maximum heat absorbed by a mesoscopic system from the environment and compare this result with experimental data. Finally, we show by numerical simulations that these results are not necessarily valid under non-stationary conditions.

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