Background Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities in heart failure (HF) and are associated with adverse outcomes including unplanned hospitalization. However, there is insufficient evidence on the factors associated with depression and anxiety for community patients with HF to inform optimal assessment and treatment in this population. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and anxiety in community-dwelling patients with HF. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 302 adult patients given a diagnosis of HF referred to United Kingdom's largest specialist cardiac rehabilitation center, from June 2013 to November 2020. Main study outcomes were symptoms of depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety using the General Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale. Explanatory variables included demographic and clinical characteristics and functional status from the Dartmouth COOP questionnaire: quality of life, pain, level of social activity and daily activities, and being bothered by emotional problems (feelings). Logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between demographic and clinical characteristics and depression and anxiety. Results Of the sample, 26.2% reported depression and 20.2% had anxiety. Higher depression and anxiety were associated with difficulty in performing daily activities (95% confidence interval, 1.11-6.46 and 1.13-8.09, respectively) and being bothered by feelings (95% confidence interval, 4.06-21.77 and 4.25-22.46, respectively). Depression was associated with limitations in social activity (95% confidence interval, 1.06-6.34) and anxiety with distressing pain (95% confidence interval, 1.38-7.23). Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of psychosocial interventions for patients with HF to minimize and manage depression and anxiety. Patients with HF may benefit from interventions targeted to maintain independence, promote participation in social activities, and optimally manage pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-223
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023


  • anxiety
  • cohort study
  • depression
  • heart failure
  • regression analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'Factors Associated With Depression and Anxiety for Community-Dwelling Patients With Heart Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this