Background: Optimal positioning of the left ventricular (LV) lead is an important determinant of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response. Objective: Evaluate the feasibility of intraprocedural integration of cardiac computed tomography (CT) to guide LV lead implantation for CRT upgrades. Methods: Patients undergoing LV lead upgrade underwent ECG-gated cardiac CT dyssynchrony and LV scar assessment. Target American Heart Association segment selection was determined using latest non-scarred mechanically activating segments overlaid onto real-time fluoroscopy with image co-registration to guide optimal LV lead implantation. Hemodynamic validation was performed using a pressure wire in the LV cavity (dP/dtmax)). Results: 18 patients (male 94%, 55.6% ischemic cardiomyopathy) with RV pacing burden 60.0 ± 43.7% and mean QRS duration 154 ± 30 ms underwent cardiac CT. 10/10 ischemic patients had CT evidence of scar and these segments were excluded as targets. Seventeen out of 18 (94%) patients underwent successful LV lead implantation with delivery to the CT target segment in 15 out of 18 (83%) of patients. Acute hemodynamic response (dP/dtmax ≥ 10%) was superior with LV stimulation in CT target versus nontarget segments (83.3% vs. 25.0%; p =.012). Reverse remodeling at 6 months (LV end-systolic volume improvement ≥15%) occurred in 60% of subjects (4/8 [50.0%] ischemic cardiomyopathy vs. 5/7 [71.4%] nonischemic cardiomyopathy, p =.608). Conclusion: Intraprocedural integration of cardiac CT to guide optimal LV lead placement is feasible with superior hemodynamics when pacing in CT target segments and favorable volumetric response rates, despite a high proportion of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Multicentre, randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate whether intraprocedural integration of cardiac CT is superior to standard care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)802-812
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • cardiac CT
  • CRT
  • image guidance
  • improving CRT response


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