King's College London

Research portal

Fluid removal associates with better outcomes in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: A cohort study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Anna Hall, Siobhan Crichton, Alison Dixon, Ilia Skorniakov, John A. Kellum, Marlies Ostermann

Original languageEnglish
Article number279
Issue number1
Published1 Jun 2020

King's Authors


Background: Fluid overload is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). We aimed to explore whether fluid overload at initiation of RRT was independently associated with mortality and whether changes in cumulative fluid balance during RRT were associated with outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the data of patients who were admitted to the multidisciplinary adult intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary care centre in the UK between 2012 and 2015 and received continuous RRT (CRRT) for acute kidney injury for at least 24 h. We collected baseline demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, severity of illness, laboratory parameters at CRRT initiation, daily cumulative fluid balance (FB), daily prescribed FB target, fluid bolus and diuretic administration and outcomes. The day of the lowest cumulative FB during CRRT was identified as nadir FB. Results: Eight hundred twenty patients were analysed (median age 65 years; 49% female). At CRRT initiation, the median cumulative FB was + 1772 ml; 89 patients (10.9%) had a cumulative FB > 10% body weight (BW). Hospital survivors had a significantly lower cumulative FB at CRRT initiation compared to patients who died (1495 versus 2184 ml; p < 0.001). In the 7 days after CRRT initiation, hospital survivors had a significant decline in cumulative FB (mean decrease 473 ml per day, p < 0.001) whilst there was no significant change in cumulative FB in non-survivors (mean decrease 112 ml per day, p = 0.188). Higher severity of illness at CRRT initiation, shorter duration of CRRT, the number of days without a prescribed FB target and need for higher doses of noradrenaline were independent risk factors for not reaching a FB nadir during CRRT. Multivariable analysis showed that older age, lower BMI, higher severity of illness, need for higher doses of noradrenaline and smaller reductions in cumulative FB during CRRT were independent risk factors for ICU and hospital mortality. Cumulative FB at CRRT initiation was not independently associated with mortality. Conclusion: In adult patients receiving CRRT, a decrease in cumulative FB was independently associated with lower mortality. Fluid overload and need for vasopressor support at CRRT initiation were not independently associated with mortality after correction for severity of illness.

View graph of relations

© 2020 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454