Food additive emulsifiers: a review of their role in foods; legislation and classifications; presence in food supply; dietary exposure; and safety assessment

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Abstract

Food additive intakes have increased with the increase in ‘ultra-processed’ food consumption. Food additive emulsifiers have received particular research attention in recent years due to preliminary evidence of adverse gastrointestinal and metabolic health effects. The aim of this review is to discuss the use of emulsifiers as food additives, and to critically assess the current estimations of exposure to, and safety of, emulsifiers. Food additive emulsifier research is complicated by heterogeneity in additives considered to be emulsifiers and labelling of them on foods globally. Major limitations exist in estimating food additive emulsifier exposure, relating predominantly to a lack of available food occurrence and concentration data. Development of brand-specific food additive emulsifier databases are crucial to accurately estimating emulsifier exposure. Current research on the health effects of food additive emulsifiers are limited to in vitro and murine studies and small acute human studies, and future research should focus on controlled human trials of longer duration.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNutrition Reviews
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 8 Apr 2020

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