Food allergy across the globe

Vanitha Sampath, Elissa M. Abrams, Bahman Adlou, Cezmi Akdis, Mübeccel Akdis, Helen A. Brough, Susan Chan, Pantipa Chatchatee, R. Sharon Chinthrajah, Renata Rodrigues Cocco, Antoine Deschildre, Philippe Eigenmann, Cesar Galvan, Ruchi Gupta, Elham Hossny, Jennifer J. Koplin, Gideon Lack, Michael Levin, Lynette P. Shek, Mika MakelaDavid Mendoza-Hernandez, Antonella Muraro, Nikolaos G. Papadopoulous, Ruby Pawankar, Kirsten P. Perrett, Graham Roberts, Cansin Sackesen, Hugh Sampson, Mimi L.K. Tang, Alkis Togias, Carina Venter, Christopher Michael Warren, Lisa M. Wheatley, Gary W.K. Wong, Kirsten Beyer, Kari C. Nadeau*, Harald Renz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Citations (Scopus)


The prevalence of food allergy (FA) is increasing in some areas of the globe, highlighting the need for better strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the last few decades, we have made great strides in understanding the causes and mechanisms underlying FAs, prompting guideline updates. Earlier guidelines recommended avoidance of common food allergens during pregnancy and lactation and delaying the introduction of allergenic foods in children aged between 1 and 3 years. Recent guidelines for allergy prevention recommend consumption of a healthy and diverse diet without eliminating or increasing the consumption of allergenic foods during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Early introduction of allergenic foods is recommended by most guidelines for allergy prevention after a period of exclusive breast-feedng (6 months [World Health Organization] or 4 months [European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology]). New diagnostics for FA have been developed with varied availability of these tests in different countries. Finally, the first oral immunotherapy drug for FA was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency in 2020. In this review, we will address the global prevalence of FA, our current understanding of the causes of FA, and the latest guidelines for preventing, diagnosing, and treating FA. We will also discuss similarities and differences between FA guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1347-1364
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • epidemiology
  • Food allergy
  • guidelines
  • prevention
  • treatment


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