Foveal Curvature and Its Associations in UK Biobank Participants

UK Biobank Eyes and Vision Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To examine whether sociodemographic, and ocular factors relate to optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived foveal curvature (FC) in healthy individuals. Methods: We developed a deep learning model to quantify OCT-derived FC from 63,939 participants (age range, 39-70 years). Associations of FC with sociodemographic, and ocular factors were obtained using multilevel regression analysis (to allow for right and left eyes) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, height (model 1), visual acuity, spherical equivalent, corneal astigmatism, center point retinal thickness (CPRT), intraocular pressure (model 2), deprivation (Townsend index), higher education, annual income, and birth order (model 3). Fovea curvature was modeled as a z-score. Results: Males had on average steeper FC (0.077; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.077-0.078) than females (0.068; 95% CI 0.068-0.069). Compared with whites, non-white individuals showed flatter FC, particularly those of black ethnicity. In black males, -0.80 standard deviation (SD) change when compared with whites (95% CI -0.89, -0.71; P 5.2e10-68). In black females, -0.70 SD change when compared with whites (95% CI -0.77, -0.63; p 2.3e10-93). Ocular factors (visual acuity, refractive status, and CPRT) showed a graded inverse association with FC that persisted after adjustment. Macular curvature showed a positive association with FC. Income showed a linear trend increase in males (P for linear trend = 0.005). Conclusions: We demonstrate marked differences in FC with ethnicity on the largest cohort studied for this purpose to date. Ocular factors showed a graded association with FC. Implementation of FC quantification in research and on the clinical setting can enhance the understanding of clinical macular phenotypes in health and disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
Pages (from-to)26
Number of pages1
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2022


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