Framework for e-learning assessment in dental education: a global model for the future

Carolina R Arevalo, Stephen C Bayne, Josie A Beeley, Christine J Brayshaw, Margaret J Cox, Nora H Donaldson, Bruce S Elson, Sharon K Grayden, Stylianos Hatzipanagos, Lynn A Johnson, Patricia A Reynolds, Dieter J Schönwetter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The framework presented in this article demonstrates strategies for a global approach to e-curricula in dental education by considering a collection of outcome assessment tools. By combining the outcomes for overall assessment, a global model for a pilot project that applies e-assessment tools to virtual learning environments (VLE), including haptics, is presented. Assessment strategies from two projects, HapTEL (Haptics in Technology Enhanced Learning) and UDENTE (Universal Dental E-learning), act as case-user studies that have helped develop the proposed global framework. They incorporate additional assessment tools and include evaluations from questionnaires and stakeholders' focus groups. These measure each of the factors affecting the classical teaching/learning theory framework as defined by Entwistle in a standardized manner. A mathematical combinatorial approach is proposed to join these results together as a global assessment. With the use of haptic-based simulation learning, exercises for tooth preparation assessing enamel and dentine were compared to plastic teeth in manikins. Equivalence for student performance for haptic versus traditional preparation methods was established, thus establishing the validity of the haptic solution for performing these exercises. Further data collected from HapTEL are still being analyzed, and pilots are being conducted to validate the proposed test measures. Initial results have been encouraging, but clearly the need persists to develop additional e-assessment methods for new learning domains.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)564-75
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Dental Education
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2013


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