PURPOSE: To develop a novel fast water-selective free-breathing 3D Cartesian cardiac CINE scan with full self-navigation and isotropic whole-heart (WH) coverage.

METHODS: A free-breathing 3D Cartesian cardiac CINE scan with a water-selective balanced steady-state free precession and a continuous (non-ECG-gated) variable-density Cartesian sampling with spiral profile ordering, out-inward sampling and acquisition-adaptive alternating tiny golden and golden angle increment between spiral arms is proposed. Data is retrospectively binned based on respiratory and cardiac self-navigation signals. A translational respiratory-motion-corrected and cardiac-motion-resolved image is reconstructed with a multi-bin patch-based low-rank reconstruction (MB-PROST) within about 15 min. A respiratory-motion-resolved approach is also investigated. The proposed 3D Cartesian cardiac CINE is acquired in sagittal orientation in 1 min 50 s for 1.9 mm3 isotropic WH coverage. Left ventricular (LV) function parameters and image quality derived from a blinded reading of the proposed 3D CINE framework are compared against conventional multi-slice 2D CINE imaging in 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with suspected cardiovascular disease.

RESULTS: The proposed framework provides free-breathing 3D cardiac CINE images with 1.9 mm3 spatial and about 45 ms temporal resolution in a short acquisition time (<2 min). LV function parameters derived from 3D CINE were in good agreement with 2D CINE (10 healthy subjects and 10 patients). Bias and confidence intervals were obtained for end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction of 0.1 ± 3.5 mL, -0.6 ± 8.2 mL and -0.1 ± 2.2%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The proposed framework enables isotropic 3D Cartesian cardiac CINE under free breathing for fast assessment of cardiac anatomy and function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e4409
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Adult
  • Diastole/physiology
  • Female
  • Heart/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motion
  • Respiration
  • Stroke Volume/physiology
  • Systole/physiology
  • Ventricular Function, Left/physiology

Cite this