Method: Findings from a variety of sources were used to summarize gender differences in antipsychotic treatment. Results: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors, the impact of reproductive phases in women and gender differences in antipsychotic prescription across the lifespan (from children and adolescents to the elderly) are discussed. Important ethnic and racial differences are also mentioned. Conclusion: Women require less antipsychotic medication than men to achieve a better symptom response, but this is at the expense of a higher side effect burden, in particular hormonal and metabolic side effects. Children, adolescents and the elderly are at especially high risk of adverse reactions with antipsychotics. In order to optimize outcome in people with psychosis, prescribers should ensure that gender differences are taken into account.