Generating Short-Axis DENSE Images from 4D XCAT Phantoms: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Hugo Barbaroux*, Michael Loecher, Karl P. Kunze, Radhouene Neji, Daniel B. Ennis, Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Andrew D. Scott, Alistair A. Young

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Displacement ENcoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) is a CMR modality that can encode myocardial tissue displacement at a pixel level, enabling the characterization of cardiac disease at early stages. However, we do not currently have a way of evaluating the accuracy of derived results, since the ground truth is unknown. In this study, we developed a proof-of-concept pipeline to generate realistic DENSE images with a known ground truth. We leverage the XCAT tool to create body anatomies, along with associated myocardial tissue displacements, and generate DENSE images with a Bloch simulation based on the time-resolved positions. We generated 6 samples: an apical, a mid, and a basal short-axis slice for both male and female anatomy. We then extracted radial and circumferential strain components using DENSEanalysis, and compared them to the ground-truth strain obtained from the XCAT displacements. While the reproducibility of the strain calculations was similar to the inter-observer variability from previous studies, and the bias in circumferential strain was small (0.03 ± 0.02), the current methods for strain extraction resulted in a bias in radial strain of 0.19 ± 0.19. There is a need to develop better regularization strategies for DENSE analysis, for instance using Deep Learning, and this study provides initial groundwork for obtaining ground-truth strain to evaluate these methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFunctional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart
Subtitle of host publication12th International Conference, FIMH 2023, Lyon, France, June 19–22, 2023, Proceedings
EditorsOlivier Bernard, Patrick Clarysse, Nicolas Duchateau, Jacques Ohayon, Magalie Viallon
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9783031353024
ISBN (Print)9783031353017
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023
EventFunctional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart - 12th International Conference, FIMH 2023, Proceedings - Lyon, France
Duration: 19 Jun 202322 Jun 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


ConferenceFunctional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart - 12th International Conference, FIMH 2023, Proceedings


  • Cardiac MR
  • Simulation
  • Strain


Dive into the research topics of 'Generating Short-Axis DENSE Images from 4D XCAT Phantoms: A Proof-of-Concept Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this