Health care index score and risk of death following tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-positive patients

D N Podlekareva, D Grint, F A Post, A Mocroft, A M Panteleev, R F Miller, J M Miro, M Bruyand, H Furrer, V Riekstina, E Girardi, M H Losso, J A Caylá, E A Malashenkov, N Obel, A M Skrahina, J D Lundgren, O Kirk, HIV-TB Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: To assess health care utilisation for patients co-infected with TB and HIV (TB-HIV), and to develop a weighted health care index (HCI) score based on commonly used interventions and compare it with patient outcome.

METHODS: A total of 1061 HIV patients diagnosed with TB in four regions, Central/Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe and Argentina, between January 2004 and December 2006 were enrolled in the TB-HIV study. A weighted HCI score (range 0–5), based on independent prognostic factors identified in multivariable Cox models and the final score, included performance of TB drug susceptibility testing (DST), an initial TB regimen containing a rifamycin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide, and start of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART).

RESULTS: The mean HCI score was highest in Central/Northern Europe (3.2, 95%CI 3.1–3.3) and lowest in Eastern Europe (1.6, 95%CI 1.5–1.7). The cumulative probability of death 1 year after TB diagnosis decreased from 39% (95%CI 31–48) among patients with an HCI score of 0, to 9% (95%CI 6–13) among those with a score of ≥4. In an adjusted Cox model, a 1-unit increase in the HCI score was associated with 27% reduced mortality (relative hazard 0.73, 95%CI 0.64–0.84).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DST, standard anti-tuberculosis treatment and early cART may improve outcome for TB-HIV patients. The proposed HCI score provides a tool for future research and monitoring of the management of TB-HIV patients. The highest HCI score may serve as a benchmark to assess TB-HIV management, encouraging continuous health care improvement.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberN/A
Pages (from-to)198-206
Number of pages9
JournalThe international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2013


  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
  • Adult
  • Cause of Death
  • Coinfection
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Seropositivity
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tuberculosis
  • World Health


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