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Higgs domain walls in the thermal background

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tomasz Krajewski, Zygmunt Lalak, M. Lewicki, Paweł Olszewski

Original languageEnglish
Article number100347
JournalPhysics of the Dark Universe
Early online date2 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

King's Authors


Most cosmological models predict that the universe was hot and dense at the early stages of its evolution. In this paper we analyse the influence of the thermal bath of Standard Model particles on the dynamics of cosmological Higgs domain walls. This manuscript poses an extension of our earlier work in which we investigated the evolution of networks of Higgs domain walls neglecting the impact of temperature variation. Using the thermally corrected effective potential of Standard Model we have found that both the position of the local maximum hmax separating minima and the width of domain walls strongly depend on temperature T. For temperatures higher than 1010GeV they respectively increase proportionally and decrease inverse proportionally to the increasing temperature. Thus, the energy scale of the problem follows the value of temperature. Our numerical lattice simulations based on the PRS algorithm reveal that Higgs domain walls in the presence of the background thermal bath are highly unstable and decay shortly after formation. Moreover we have found that the fraction of horizons produced by inflation in which Higgs field expectation value is higher then hmax needs to be very low in order for the evolution of the network of the domain walls to end in the electroweak vacuum. This means that Higgs domain walls necessarily were very rare objects and their average energy density was very small. As a result, the domain walls cannot significantly effect cosmological observables.

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