High-Grade Glioma Treatment Response Monitoring Biomarkers: A Position Statement on the Evidence Supporting the Use of Advanced MRI Techniques in the Clinic, and the Latest Bench-to-Bedside Developments. Part 2: Spectroscopy, Chemical Exchange Saturation, Multiparametric Imaging, and Radiomics

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Abstract

Objective: Summarize evidence for use of advanced MRI techniques as monitoring biomarkers in the clinic, and highlight the latest bench-to-bedside developments.

Methods: Experts in advanced MRI techniques applied to high-grade glioma treatment response assessment convened through a European framework. Current evidence regarding the potential for monitoring biomarkers in adult high-grade glioma is reviewed, and individual modalities of perfusion, permeability, and microstructure imaging are discussed (in Part 1 of two). In Part 2, we discuss modalities related to metabolism and/or chemical composition, appraise the clinic readiness of the individual modalities, and consider post-processing methodologies involving the combination of MRI approaches (multiparametric imaging) or machine learning (radiomics).

Results: High-grade glioma vasculature exhibits increased perfusion, blood volume, and permeability compared with normal brain tissue. Measures of cerebral blood volume derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI have consistently provided information about brain tumor growth and response to treatment; it is the most clinically validated advanced technique. Clinical studies have proven the potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for distinguishing post-treatment related effects from recurrence, but the optimal acquisition protocol, mode of analysis, parameter of highest diagnostic value, and optimal cut-off points remain to be established. Arterial spin labeling techniques do not require the injection of a contrast agent, and repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow can be performed. The absence of potential gadolinium deposition effects allows widespread use in pediatric patients and those with impaired renal function. More data are necessary to establish clinical validity as monitoring biomarkers. Diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient analysis, diffusion tensor or kurtosis imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion, and other microstructural modeling approaches also allow treatment response assessment; more robust data are required to validate these alone or when applied to post-processing methodologies.

Conclusion: Considerable progress has been made in the development of these monitoring biomarkers. Many techniques are in their infancy, whereas others have generated a larger body of evidence for clinical application.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in oncology
Volume12
Early online date3 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Mar 2022

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