Background: Antitachycardia pacing (ATP), which may avoid unnecessary implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks, does not always terminate ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). Mean entropy calculated using cardiac magnetic resonance texture analysis (CMR-TA) has been shown to predict appropriate ICD therapy. We examined whether scar heterogeneity, quantified by mean entropy, is associated with ATP failure and explore potential mechanisms using computer modeling. Methods: A subanalysis of 114 patients undergoing CMR-TA where the primary endpoint was delivery of appropriate ICD therapy (ATP or shock therapy) was performed. Patients receiving appropriate ICD therapy (n = 33) were dichotomized into “successful ATP” versus “shock therapy” groups. In silico computer modeling was used to explore underlying mechanisms. Results: A total of 16 of 33 (48.5%) patients had successful ATP to terminate VA, and 17 of 33 (51.5%) patients required shock therapy. Mean entropy was significantly higher in the shock versus successful ATP group (6.1 ± 0.5 vs 5.5 ± 0.7, P =.037). Analysis of patients receiving ATP (n = 22) showed significantly higher mean entropy in the six of 22 patients that failed ATP (followed by rescue ICD shock) compared to 16 of 22 that had successful ATP (6.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.5 ± 0.7, P =.048). Computer modeling suggested inability of the paced wavefront in ATP to successfully propagate from the electrode site through patchy fibrosis as a possible mechanism of failed ATP. Conclusions: Our findings suggest lower scar heterogeneity (mean entropy) is associated with successful ATP, whereas higher scar heterogeneity is associated with more aggressive VAs unresponsive to ATP requiring shock therapy that may be due to inability of the paced wavefront to propagate through scar and terminate the VA circuit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-745
Number of pages9
JournalPacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE
Issue number7
Early online date29 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • ATP failure
  • ICD risk stratification
  • entropy
  • scar heterogeneity
  • ventricular arrhythmia


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