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How Can We Improve the Vaccination Response in Older People? Part II: Targeting Immunosenescence of Adaptive Immunity Cells

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Maider Garnica, Anna Aiello, Mattia Emanuela Ligotti, Giulia Accardi, Hugo Arasanz, Ana Bocanegra, Ester Blanco, Anna Calabrò, Luisa Chocarro, Miriam Echaide, Grazyna Kochan, Leticia Fernandez-Rubio, Pablo Ramos, Fanny Pojero, Nahid Zareian, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Farzin Farzaneh, Giuseppina Candore, Calogero Caruso, David Escors

Original languageEnglish
Article number9797
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number17
Published29 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: The OncoImmunology group is funded by the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC, PROYE16001ESCO); Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII)-FEDER project grants (FIS PI17/02119, FIS PI20/00010, COV20/00000 and TRANSPOCART ICI19/00069); a Biomedicine Project grant from the Department of Health of the Government of Navarre (BMED 050-2019); strategic projects from the Department of Industry, Government of Navarre (AGATA, Ref 0011-1411-2020-000013; LINTERNA, Ref. 0011-1411-2020-000033; DESCARTHES, 0011-1411-2019-000058); Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (PID2019-108989RB-I00, PLEC2021-008094 MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033) and the European Project Horizon 2020 Improved Vaccination for Older Adults (ISOLDA; Grant agreement ID: 848166). S. Piñeiro-Hermida thanks the La Caixa Foundation for his postdoctoral fellowship. Fanny Pojero was supported by Fondazione Umberto Veronesi. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 by the authors.

King's Authors


The number of people that are 65 years old or older has been increasing due to the improvement in medicine and public health. However, this trend is not accompanied by an increase in quality of life, and this population is vulnerable to most illnesses, especially to infectious diseases. Vaccination is the best strategy to prevent this fact, but older people present a less efficient response, as their immune system is weaker due mainly to a phenomenon known as immunosenescence. The adaptive immune system is constituted by two types of lymphocytes, T and B cells, and the function and fitness of these cell populations are affected during ageing. Here, we review the impact of ageing on T and B cells and discuss the approaches that have been described or proposed to modulate and reverse the decline of the ageing adaptive immune system.

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