How Can We Improve Vaccination Response in Old People? Part I: Targeting Immunosenescence of Innate Immunity Cells

Anna Aiello, Mattia Emanuela Ligotti, Maider Garnica, Giulia Accardi, Anna Calabrò, Fanny Pojero, Hugo Arasanz, Ana Bocanegra, Ester Blanco, Luisa Chocarro, Miriam Echaide, Leticia Fernandez-Rubio, Pablo Ramos, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Grazyna Kochan, Nahid Zareian, Farzin Farzaneh, David Escors, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Candore

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Vaccination, being able to prevent millions of cases of infectious diseases around the world every year, is the most effective medical intervention ever introduced. However, immunosenescence makes vaccines less effective in providing protection to older people. Although most studies explain that this is mainly due to the immunosenescence of T and B cells, the immunosenescence of innate immunity can also be a significant contributing factor. Alterations in function, number, subset, and distribution of blood neutrophils, monocytes, and natural killer and dendritic cells are detected in aging, thus potentially reducing the efficacy of vaccines in older individuals. In this paper, we focus on the immunosenescence of the innate blood immune cells. We discuss possible strategies to counteract the immunosenescence of innate immunity in order to improve the response to vaccination. In particular, we focus on advances in understanding the role and the development of new adjuvants, such as TLR agonists, considered a promising strategy to increase vaccination efficiency in older individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9880
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • adjuvants
  • aging
  • dendritic cells
  • immunosenescence
  • immunostimulation
  • innate immunity
  • trained immunity
  • vaccines


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