How does variation in lower anterior face height influence perceived attractiveness? Aquantitative investigation

Farhad B. Naini*, Ana Nora A Donaldson, Fraser McDonald, Martyn T. Cobourne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to undertake an objective and quantitative evaluation of how severity of lower anterior face height (LAFH) variations influences perceived attractiveness. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: St George's Hospital, London, UK Participants and methods: The LAFH of an idealized male and female frontal facial image were altered in 2.5 mm increments from 220 to 20 mm (male images) and from 210 to 20 mm (female images), in order to represent reduction and increase in height of this region. These images were rated by a pre-selected group of pre-treatment orthognathic patients (n575), clinicians (n535) and laypersons (n575). Outcome measures: Ratings on a seven-point Likert scale. Results: With an increase in LAFH, desire for surgery became significant at 15-16 mm for male faces and 13-14 mm for female faces. With a reduction in LAFH, desire for surgery became significant at 214 to 217 mm for male faces; a smaller reduction of 26 to 28 mm led to a significant desire for surgery for female faces. Conclusions: The classical vertical facial trisection canon of upper face height as one-third (33.3%), midface height as one-third (33.3%) and LAFH as one-third (33.3%) of total anterior face height may be used as an 'ideal' proportional ratio. Mild LAFH variations were largely acceptable. In terms of the percentage LAFH to total anterior face height (TAFH) and anterior face height (AFH), observers did not desire surgery for LAFH variations of 25-42% of TAFH (40-66% of AFH) for male faces, and 28-42% of TAFH (45-66% of AFH) for female faces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-217
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Orthodontics
Volume40
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013

Keywords

  • Attractiveness
  • Face height
  • Orthognathic surgery

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