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Hypertension risk and clinical care in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Luis Ayerbe, Ivo Forgnone, Juliet Addo, Ana Siguero, Stefano Gelati, Salma Ayis

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 665–670
JournalJournal of affective disorders
Early online date7 Sep 2017
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018


King's Authors


Background: A higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been observed in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) or schizophrenia, partly due to an increased risk of hypertension (HTN), or a less effective care of it. This systematic review and meta-analysis, presents a critical appraisal and summary of the studies addressing the risk of HTN, or the differences in its care, for those with schizophrenia or BPD.

Methods: Prospective studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, and the Web of Science, from database inception to June 2017. A meta-analysis was undertaken to obtain pooled estimates of the risk of HTN.

Results: Five studies reporting the risk of HTN, and five studies presenting differences in its clinical care, were identified. An increased risk of HTN was observed for BPD patients, with an overall Incidence Rate Ratio 1.27(1.15–1.40). The pooled Incidence Rate Ratio of HTN for those with schizophrenia was 0.94 (0.75 – 1.14). A poorer care of HTN (lower rates of screening, prescription, and adherence) was reported in four studies of schizophrenia, and two of BPD patients, compared to people without these conditions. Limitations reduced number of studies on risk and care of HTN on patients with BPD or schizophrenia.

Conclusions: Limited evidence suggests that patients with BPD have a higher risk of HTN. Patients with schizophrenia and BPD receive poor care of HTN. Understanding the risk of HTN, and the differences in its care, is essential for clinicians to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity and overall mortality of these patients.

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