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IL-18R signaling is required for γδ T cell response and confers resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection

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Julia Barbalho da Mota, Juliana Echevarria-Lima, Fernanda Kyle-Cezar, Matheus Melo, Maria Bellio, Julio Scharfstein, Ana Carolina Oliveira

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1239-1251
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Leukocyte Biology
Volume108
Issue number4
DOIs
Accepted/In press1 Jan 2020
Published1 Oct 2020

King's Authors

Abstract

IFN-γ-producing γδ T cells have been suggested to play an important role in protection against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to functional differentiation of this T cell subset in this model. In the current work, we investigated the possibility that the IL-18/MyD88 pathway is central for the generation of effector γδ T cells, playing a role for resistance against infection. We found that splenic γδ+CD3+ cells were rapidly expanded (10–14 days post infection), which was accompanied by an early γδ T cell infiltration into the heart. In the following days, intracardiac parasitism was reduced, the protective immunity being accompanied by decreased γδ T cells tissue infiltration. As predicted, there was a drastic reduction of γδ T cells in Myd88- and Il18r1-deficient mice, both transgenic strains displaying a susceptible phenotype with increased intracardiac parasitism. In vivo and in vitro assays confirmed that IL-18R deficiency hampered γδ T cell proliferation. Further characterization revealed that T. cruzi infection up-regulates IL-18R expression in WT γδ+ T cell population whereas Il18r1−/− mice showed impaired generation of cytotoxic GzB+ and IFN-γ-producing γδ T cells. Consistently, in vitro cytotoxicity assay confirmed that cytolytic function was impaired in Il18r1-deficient γδ T cells. As a proof of concept, adoptive transfer of WT γδ T cells rescues Il18r1-deficient mice from susceptibility, reducing parasitemia and abrogating the mortality. Collectively, our findings implicate the IL-18R-MyD88 signaling in the mechanisms underlying generation of immunoprotective γδ T cells response in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

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