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Iliocaval venous outflow obstruction, cardiac preload and exercise limitation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of cardiovascular translational research
Published11 Feb 2020

King's Authors


Cardiac output during exercise increases by as much as fivefold in the untrained man, and by as much as eightfold in the elite athlete. Increasing venous return is a critical but much overlooked component of the physiological response to exercise. Cardiac disorders such as constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension are recognised to impair preload and cause exercise limitation; however, the effects of peripheral venous obstruction on cardiac function have not been well described. This manuscript will discuss how obstruction of the iliocaval venous outflow can lead to impairment in exercise tolerance, how such obstructions may be diagnosed, the potential implications of chronic obstructions on sympathetic nervous system activation, and relevance of venous compression syndromes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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