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Imaging of T-cells and their responses during anti-cancer immunotherapy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Massis Krekorian, Gilbert Otto Fruhwirth, Mangala Srinivas, Carl Figdor, Sandra Heskamp, Timothy Howard Witney, Erik H.J.G. Aarntzen

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7924-7947
Number of pages24
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 16 Oct 2019


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    v09p7924.pdf, 2.22 MB, application/pdf


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King's Authors


Immunotherapy has proven to be an effective approach in a growing number of cancers. Despite durable clinical responses achieved with antibodies targeting immune checkpoint molecules, many patients do not respond.

The common denominator for immunotherapies that have successfully been introduced in the clinic is their potential to induce or enhance infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells into the tumour. However, in clinical research the molecules, cells and processes involved in effective responses during immunotherapy remain largely obscure. Therefore, in vivo imaging technologies that interrogate T-cell responses in patients represent a powerful tool to boost further development of immunotherapy.

This review comprises a comprehensive analysis of the in vivo imaging technologies that allow the characterisation of T-cell responses induced by anti-cancer immunotherapy, with emphasis on technologies that are clinically available or have high translational potential. Throughout we discuss their respective strengths and weaknesses, providing arguments for selecting the optimal imaging options for future research and patient management.

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