Imaging the Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

Tayyabah Yousaf, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Parkinson's disease is acknowledged to be a multisystem syndrome, manifesting as a result of multineuropeptide dysfunction, including dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic deficits. This multisystem disorder ultimately leads to the presentation of a range of nonmotor symptoms, now appreciated to be an integral part of the disease-specific spectrum of symptoms, often preceding the diagnosis of motor Parkinson's disease. In this chapter, we review the dopaminergic and nondopaminergic basis of these symptoms by exploring the neuroimaging evidence based on several techniques including positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography molecular imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging. We discuss the role of these neuroimaging techniques in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of NMS in Parkinson's disease.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Review of Neurobiology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Jun 2017


  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • In vivo
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Nonmotor symptoms
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Radioligand
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography molecular imaging


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