Immunohistochemical biomarkers in oral submucous fibrosis: A scoping review

Loganathan Kavitha, Kannan Ranganathan*, Sivasamy Shyam, Jaffer Hussain Shazia Fathima, Wadgave Umesh, Saman Warnakulasuriya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: This scoping review was done to study the immunohistochemical biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis and malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), in literature published from 2010 to 2021. Method: The protocol was adapted from the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer's Manual (2017), and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines for Scoping Reviews. Results: Eighty-six studies included in this review reported 84 immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers in OSF: 10 epithelial markers, 28 connective tissue markers, 22 proliferative markers, and 24 other biomarkers that are transcription factors, cancer stem cell markers, cell signaling markers, proteins, and enzymes. The commonly reported IHC biomarkers were alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin (seven articles each) followed by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 (six articles each), p53, p63, and Ki67 (five articles each). α-SMA, Ki67, CD105, and hTERT were significantly increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in a background of OSF (OSCC-OSF) compared with OSF and normal subjects. Conclusion: The identified surrogate IHC biomarkers reported in OSF in this scoping review require validation with long-term prospective studies to facilitate early diagnosis, for use in risk assessment, and plan appropriate treatment for OSF in clinical practice. Open Science Framework ID:

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)594-602
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Oral Pathology and Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • biomarkers
  • oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • oral submucous fibrosis
  • potentially malignant disorders
  • scoping review


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