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Improved search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector

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Original languageEnglish
Article number112012
Pages (from-to)112012-1-112012-7
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number11
Accepted/In press15 Jun 2022
Published27 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: Capital construction funds for the experiment were provided by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and matching partners. This research was supported by: Canada: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Queen’s University at Kingston, Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science, Alberta Science and Research Investments Program, Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario, Ontario Early Researcher Awards; U.S.: Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics, National Science Foundation, Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration through the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium; UK: Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme under the European Research Council (ERC) grant agreement, the Marie Curie grant agreement; Portugal: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT-Portugal); Germany: the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; Mexico: DGAPA-UNAM and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología. We thank the technical staff for their strong contributions. We would like to thank SNOLAB and its staff for support through underground space, logistical and technical services. SNOLAB operations are supported by CFI and the Province of Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, with underground access provided by Vale at the Creighton mine site. This research was enabled in part by support provided by WestGRID and Compute Canada in particular computer systems and support from the University of Alberta and from Simon Fraser University and by the GridPP Collaboration, in particular computer systems and support from Rutherford Appleton Laboratory . Additional high-performance computing was provided through the “Illume” cluster funded by CFI and Alberta Economic Development and Trade (EDT) and operated by ComputeCanada and the Savio computational cluster resource provided by the Berkeley Research Computing program at the University of California, Berkeley (supported by the UC Berkeley Chancellor, Vice Chancellor for Research, and Chief Information Officer). Additional long-term storage was provided by the Fermilab Scientific Computing Division. Fermilab is managed by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC (FRA) under Contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. Representations of the data relevant to the conclusions drawn here are provided within this paper. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.


King's Authors


This paper reports results from a search for single and multinucleon disappearance from the O16 nucleus in water within the SNO+ detector using all of the available data. These so-called "invisible"decays do not directly deposit energy within the detector but are instead detected through their subsequent nuclear deexcitation and gamma-ray emission. New limits are given for the partial lifetimes: τ(n→inv)>9.0×1029 years, τ(p→inv)>9.6×1029 years, τ(nn→inv)>1.5×1028 years, τ(np→inv)>6.0×1028 years, and τ(pp→inv)>1.1×1029 years at 90% Bayesian credibility level (with a prior uniform in rate). All but the (nn→inv) results improve on existing limits by a factor of about 3.

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