Improving foot self-care in people with diabetes in Ghana: A development and feasibility randomised trial of a context appropriate, family-orientated diabetic footcare intervention

Joseph Suglo*, Kirsty Winkley, Jackie Sturt

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Objective Africa presents a higher diabetic foot ulcer prevalence estimate of 7.2% against global figures of 6.3%. Engaging family members in self-care education interventions has been shown to be effective at preventing diabetes-related foot ulcers. This study culturally adapted and tested the feasibility and acceptability of an evidence-based footcare family intervention in Ghana. Methods The initial phase of the study involved stakeholder engagement, comprising Patient Public Involvement activities and interviews with key informant nurses and people with diabetes (N = 15). In the second phase, adults at risk of diabetes-related foot ulcers and nominated caregivers (N = 50 dyads) participated in an individually randomised feasibility trial of the adapted intervention (N = 25) compared to usual care (N = 25). The study aimed to assess feasibility outcomes and to identify efficacy signals on clinical outcomes at 12 weeks post randomisation. Patient reported outcomes were foot care behaviour, foot self-care efficacy, diabetes knowledge and caregiver diabetes distress. Results Adjustments were made to the evidence-based intervention to reflect the literacy, information needs and preferences of stakeholders and to develop a context appropriate diabetic foot self-care intervention. A feasibility trial was then conducted which met all recruitment, retention, data quality and randomisation progression criteria. At 12 weeks post randomisation, efficacy signals favoured the intervention group on improved footcare behaviour, foot self-care efficacy, diabetes knowledge and reduced diabetes distress. Future implementation issues to consider include the staff resources needed to deliver the intervention, family members availability to attend in-person sessions and consideration of remote intervention delivery. Conclusion A contextual family-oriented foot self-care education intervention is feasible, acceptable, and may improve knowledge and self-care with the potential to decrease diabetes-related complications. The education intervention is a strategic approach to improving diabetes care and prevention of foot disease, especially in settings with limited diabetes care resources. Future research will investigate the possibility of remote delivery to better meet patient and staff needs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0302385
JournalPLoS One
Volume19
Issue number5 May
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2024

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Foot care
  • FAMILY
  • RCT, Randomised Controlled Trial
  • diabetic foot ulcer
  • Ghana

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