In Search of the ‘X’ Factor: Morale and the Study of Strategy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
196 Downloads (Pure)


A functional conceptualisation of morale is proposed, which focuses its meaning on motivation and the willingness to act rather than mood and group dynamics. Morale, it is argued, emerges from the subtle interrelationships of the many factors known to affect military means. It can be assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing the interaction between morale and policy to be explored in a manner that facilitates insight into the strategic process. A case study from the North African campaign of World War II is presented to explore in detail the relationship between morale and the art of war – strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Strategic Studies
Early online date7 May 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Morale
  • Strategy
  • Combat Effectiveness
  • El Alamein
  • North African Campaign
  • World War, 1939-1945


Dive into the research topics of 'In Search of the ‘X’ Factor: Morale and the Study of Strategy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this