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In vitro compressive strength and edge stability testing of directly repaired glass-ionomer cements

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jing Zhang, Peter Braun, Avijit Banerjee

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

King's Authors


Objective: To study the repair potential of seven commercial glass-ionomer cements (GICs) using an in vitro edge compression test model. Materials and methods: A total of 448 normal and 192 repaired cylindrical specimens (6 × 4 mm) were produced from 6 GICs and one resin-modified GIC. Repaired samples consisted of a base aged for 1 month before repaired by an overlying layer. All samples were matured for 1 day, 1 week, 1 month or 3 months before compression, and edge tests were performed respectively on the whole surface (compressive strength, CS) or on the edge (edge stability, ES) using a universal testing machine. Results: For normal specimens, Ketac Universal (KU) illustrated a significantly higher CS than other groups at all time points (p < 0.001). ES of KU was weaker than EQUIA Forte (EQF), FIX (Fuji IX) and RSC (Riva Self Cure) after 1 day, increasing after 1 week. Repaired specimens showed CS comparable to normal specimens (p > 0.05). Repaired KU significantly improved CS compared to repaired EQF and Fuji II (FII) after 1 day. No statistical difference was found in ES among these groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: KU provided the fastest maturation and greatest CS and ES in both normal and repair models after short-term ageing. Repair of GICs could potentially be achieved directly onto the fractured substrate and the subsequent improved mechanical performance could be maintained for at least 3 months. Clinical relevance: This study provides a potential alternative in-vitro method to assess GIC restoration failure as well as provide insight into the mechanisms of GIC restoration repair.

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