In vivo study of the bioavailability and metabolic profile of (poly)phenols after sous-vide artichoke consumption

Maite Dominguez-Fernandez, Paul Young Tie Yang, Iziar Ludwig, Michael N Clifford, Concepcion Cid, Ana Maria Rodriguez Mateos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Artichokes are a rich source of (poly)phenols, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, but little is known about their bioavailability from this source. This study investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of (poly)phenols after sous-vide artichoke consumption (5776 µmol of (poly)phenols) by healthy volunteers. Seventy-six (poly)phenol metabolites were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS using authentic standards, including acyl-quinic acids plus C6–C3, C6–C1, C6–C2, C6–C2–N, C6–C0 metabolites, and their phase-II conjugates. The major metabolites were 3ʹ-methoxy-4ʹ-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3ʹ-methoxycinnamic acid-4ʹ-sulfate, and 4ʹ-hydroxycinnamic acid-3ʹ-sulfate, which appeared early in plasma (Tmax < 4 h); plus 3-(3ʹ-methoxy-4ʹ-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(4ʹ-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid-3ʹ-glucuronide, 3-(3ʹ-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid and hippuric acids, which appeared later (Tmax >6 h). The 24 h urinary recovery averaged 8.9% (molar basis) of the (poly)phenols consumed. Hepatic beta-oxidation of 3ʹ,4ʹ-dihydroxycinnamic acid and methylated conjugates occurred, but was limited (<0.04%). 3ʹ-Methylation exceeded 4ʹ-methylation and interindividual variability was high, especially for gut microbial metabolites (up to 168-fold).
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 16 Jul 2021


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