Incidence and long-term survival of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage over time: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Background and Purpose: Recent epidemiological data indicate that the absolute number of hemorrhagic stroke cases increased by 47% between 1990 and 2010 and continued to cause high rates of death and disability. The last systematic review and meta-analysis of incidence and long-term survival of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were published 11 and 7 years ago, respectively, and lacked comparison between different income groups, therefore, a more up to date analysis is needed. We aim to investigate the ICH incidence and long-term survival data in countries of different income groups. Materials Methods: We systematically searched Ovid Medline for population-based longitudinal studies of first-ever spontaneous ICH published from January 2000 to December 2020. We performed meta-analyses on the incidence and survival rate in countries of 4 different income groups with random-effects models (severe inconsistency). The I 2 was used to measure the heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was further investigated by conducting the meta-regression on the study mid-year. Time trends of the survival rate were assessed by weighted linear regression. Results: We identified 84 eligible papers, including 68 publications reporting incidence and 24 publications on the survival rate. The pooled incidence of ICH per 100,000 per person-years was 26.47 (95% CI: 21.84–32.07) worldwide, 25.9 (95% CI: 22.63–29.63) in high-income countries (HIC), 28.45 (95% CI: 15.90–50.88) in upper-middle-income countries, and 31.73 (95% CI: 18.41–54.7) in lower-middle-income countries. The 1-year pooled survival rate was from 50% (95% CI: 47–54%; n = 4,380) worldwide to 50% (95% CI: 47–54%) in HIC, and 46% (95% CI: 38–55%) in upper-middle income countries. The 5-year pooled survival rate was 41% (95% CI: 35–48%; n = 864) worldwide, 41% (95% CI: 32–50%) in high-income and upper-middle countries. No publications were found reporting the long-term survival in lower-middle-income and low-income countries. No time trends in incidence or survival were found by meta-regression. Conclusion: The pooled ICH incidence was highest in lower-middle-income countries. About half of ICH patients survived 1 year, and about two-fifths survived 5 years. Reliable population-based studies estimating the ICH incidence and long-term survival in low-income and low-middle-income countries are needed to help prevention of ICH. Systematic Review Registration:, PROSPERO CRD42020170140.

Original languageEnglish
Article number819737
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Early online date10 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2022


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