Abstract

Objectives: To examine the relationship between the English index of multiple deprivation (IMD) and the incidence of pre-eclampsia (PE), evaluate the distribution of IMD in a cohort of ethnically diverse pregnant women in South East England and assess whether IMD improves the prediction of PE compared with that provided by the ‘history-only’ competing-risks model (based on maternal characteristics and medical history). Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of 159 125 women with a singleton pregnancy who attended their first routine hospital visit at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation in two maternity hospitals in the UK. The inclusion criteria were delivery at ≥ 24 weeks' gestation of babies without major abnormality. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographic characteristics and obstetric and medical history, which was then reviewed by a doctor together with the woman. Patients were asked to self-identify as white, black, South Asian, East Asian or mixed race. IMD was used as a measure of socioeconomic status, which takes into account income, employment, education, skills and training, health and disability, crime, barriers to housing and services, and living environment. Each neighborhood is ranked according to their level of deprivation relative to that of other areas into one of five equal groups, with Quintile 1 containing the 20% most deprived areas and Quintile 5 containing the 20% least deprived areas. IMD was assigned based on a woman's postcode. Risk factors for PE and its incidence were assessed across IMD using chi-square test or t-test, as appropriate. The relationship between IMD and gestational age at delivery with PE was evaluated by fitting parametric survival models for IMD alone, IMD combined with race and IMD combined with the Fetal Medicine Foundation history-only competing-risks model. Results: The incidence of PE (n = 4088, 2.6%) increased progressively across IMD quintiles, from 2.0% in Quintile 5 (least deprived) to 3.0% in Quintile 1 (most deprived). Compared with white women and those in other racial groups, black women had a higher incidence of PE (4.8%), were less often in IMD Quintiles 4 and 5, and were more often in IMD Quintiles 1 and 2. None of the IMD quintiles improved the prediction of PE compared with that provided by the history-only competing-risks model (which includes race). The history-only competing-risks model with vs without IMD had a similar detection rate for delivery with PE at < 37 weeks' gestation (44.1% (95% CI, 41.1–47.2%) vs 43.9% (95% CI, 40.1–47.0%)) and at any gestational age (35.2% (95% CI, 33.8–36.7%) vs 35.1% (95% CI, 33.7–36.6%)), at a 10% screen-positive rate. Conclusions: The incidence of PE is higher in women living in the most deprived areas in South East England and in black women (vs those of other racial groups), who also live in areas of higher deprivation. However, in screening for PE, inclusion of IMD does not improve the prediction of PE provided by race and other maternal characteristics and elements of medical history.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume61
Issue number1
Early online date30 Sept 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • General Medicine
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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