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Inequalities in glycemic control in childhood onset type 2 diabetes in England and Wales-A national population-based longitudinal study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Amal R Khanolkar, Rakesh Amin, David Taylor-Robinson, Russell M Viner, Justin Warner, Terence Stephenson

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)821-831
Number of pages11
Issue number7
PublishedNov 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

King's Authors


BACKGROUND: Not much is known about glycaemic-control trajectories in childhood-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated characteristics of children and young people (CYP) with T2D and inequalities in glycemic control.

METHODS: We studied 747 CYP with T2D, <19 years of age in 2009-2016 (from the total population-based National Pediatric Diabetes Audit [>95% diabetes cases in England/Wales]). Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to assess socioeconomic and ethnic differences in longitudinal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) trajectories during 4 years post-diagnosis (3326 HbA1c data points, mean 4.5 data points/subject). Self-identified ethnicity was grouped into six categories. Index of Multiple Deprivation (a small geographical area-level deprivation measure) was grouped into SES quintiles for analysis.

RESULTS: Fifty-eight percent were non-White, 66% were female, and 41% were in the most disadvantaged SES quintile. Mean age and HbA1c at diagnosis were 13.4 years and 68 mmol/mol, respectively. Following an initial decrease between diagnosis and end of year 1 (-15.2 mmol/mol 95%CI, -19.2, -11.2), HbA1c trajectories increased between years 1 and 3 (10 mmol/mol, 7.6, 12.4), followed by slight gradual decrease subsequently (-1.6 mmol/mol, -2, -1.1). Compared to White CYP, Pakistani children had higher HbA1c at diagnosis (13.2 mmol/mol, 5.6-20.9). During follow-up, mixed-ethnicity and Pakistani CYP had poorer glycemic control. Compared to children in the most disadvantaged quintile, those in the most advantaged had lower HbA1c at diagnosis (-6.3 mmol, -12.6, -0.1). Differences by SES remained during follow-up. Mutual adjustment for SES and ethnicity did not substantially alter the above estimates.

CONCLUSIONS: About two-thirds of children with childhood-onset T2D were non-White, female adolescents, just under half of whom live in the most disadvantaged areas of England and Wales. Additionally, there are substantial socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in diabetes control.

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