Inflammation and gut dysbiosis as drivers of CKD–MBD

Pieter Evenepoel*, Peter Stenvinkel, Catherine Shanahan, Roberto Pacifici

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Two decades ago, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes coined the term chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) to describe the syndrome of biochemical, bone and extra-skeletal calcification abnormalities that occur in patients with CKD. CKD–MBD is a prevalent complication and contributes to the excessively high burden of fractures and cardiovascular disease, loss of quality of life and premature mortality in patients with CKD. Thus far, therapy has focused primarily on phosphate retention, abnormal vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone disturbances, but these strategies have largely proved unsuccessful, thus calling for paradigm-shifting concepts and innovative therapeutic approaches. Interorgan crosstalk is increasingly acknowledged to have an important role in health and disease. Accordingly, mounting evidence suggests a role for both the immune system and the gut microbiome in bone and vascular biology. Gut dysbiosis, compromised gut epithelial barrier and immune cell dysfunction are prominent features of the uraemic milieu. These alterations might contribute to the inflammatory state observed in CKD and could have a central role in the pathogenesis of CKD–MBD. The emerging fields of osteoimmunology and osteomicrobiology add another level of complexity to the pathogenesis of CKD–MBD, but also create novel therapeutic opportunities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)646-657
Number of pages12
JournalNature Reviews Nephrology
Issue number10
Early online date24 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


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