Inherent Strategic Ambiguity between Objectives and Actions: Russia’s ‘Information War’

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The concept and practice of strategic ambiguity have long been the subject of scholarly inquiry. In an attempt to understand how it can be used in strategic communications (SC), this article explores Russia’s conceptualisation and implementation of ‘information war’ by adopting a dialectic approach. First, it examines the Kremlin’s actions in Syria and Ukraine through the traditional approach to strategy as an act of navigation. Second, it takes an opposite framework, approaching the Kremlin’s ‘information war’ as a strategy of wayfinding (strategy without design). Finally, based on the dialectic synthesis of these two approaches, the conclusion offers several recommendations for the practice of SC in general.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-230
Number of pages43
JournalDefence Strategic Communications
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2023


  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Syria, syrian war, proxy wars, civil wars, foreign intervention in civil wars, Iran, Russia, Hizbullah
  • Ambiguity
  • information warfare
  • Strategic Communications


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