Abstract

Hyperion-IID is a positron emission tomography (PET) insert which allows simultaneous operation in a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. To read out the scintillation light of the employed lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and 12 mm in height, digital silicon photomultipliers (DPC 3200-22, Philips Digital Photon Counting) (DPC) are used. The basic PET performance in terms of energy resolution, coincidence resolution time (CRT) and sensitivity as a function of the operating parameters, such as the operating temperature, the applied overvoltage, activity and configuration parameters of the DPCs, has been evaluated at system level. The measured energy resolution did not show a large dependency on the selected parameters and is in the range of 12.4%-12.9% for low activity, degrading to ∼13.6% at an activity of ∼100 MBq. The CRT strongly depends on the selected trigger scheme (trig) of the DPCs, and we measured approximately 260 ps, 440 ps, 550 ps and 1300 ps for trig 1-4, respectively. The trues sensitivity for a NEMA NU 4 mouse-sized scatter phantom with a 70 mm long tube of activity was dependent on the operating parameters and was determined to be 0.4%-1.4% at low activity. The random fraction stayed below 5% at activity up to 100 MBq and the scatter fraction was evaluated as ∼6% for an energy window of 411 keV-561 keV and ∼16% for 250 keV-625 keV. Furthermore, we performed imaging experiments using a mouse-sized hot-rod phantom and a large rabbit-sized phantom. In 2D slices of the reconstructed mouse-sized hot-rod phantom (∅ = 28 mm), the rods were distinguishable from each other down to a rod size of 0.8 mm. There was no benefit from the better CRT of trig 1 over trig 3, where in the larger rabbit-sized phantom (∅ = 114 mm) we were able to show a clear improvement in image quality using the time-of-flight information. The findings will allow system architects - aiming at a similar detector design using DPCs - to make predictions about the design requirements and the performance that can be expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2851-2878
Number of pages28
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Volume61
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2016

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