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Intra-aortic Balloon Counterpulsation for High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Defining Coronary Responders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-309
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of cardiovascular translational research
Issue number4
Early online date15 Mar 2019
Accepted/In press6 Feb 2019
E-pub ahead of print15 Mar 2019
Published15 Aug 2019


King's Authors


The effect of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) varies, and it is unknown whether this is due to a heterogeneous coronary physiological response. This study aimed to characterise the coronary and left ventricular (LV) effects of IABC and define responders in terms of their invasive physiology. Twenty-seven patients (LVEF 31 ± 9%) underwent coronary pressure and Doppler flow measurements in the target vessel and acquisition of LV pressure volume loops after IABC supported PCI, with and without IABC assistance. Through coronary wave intensity analysis, perfusion efficiency (PE) was calculated as the proportion of total wave energy comprised of accelerating waves, with responders defined as those with an increase in PE with IABC. The myocardial supply/demand ratio was defined as the ratio between coronary flow and LV pressure volume area (PVA). Responders (44.4%) were more likely to have undergone complex PCI (p = 0.03) with a higher pre-PCI disease burden (p = 0.02) and had lower unassisted mean arterial (87.4 ± 11.0 vs. 77.8 ± 11.6 mmHg, p = 0.04) and distal coronary pressures (88.0 ± 11.0 vs. 71.6 ± 12.4 mmHg, p < 0.001). There was no effect overall of IABC on the myocardial supply/demand ratio (p = 0.34). IABC has minimal effect on demand, but there is marked heterogeneity in the coronary response to IABC, with the greatest response observed in those patients with the most disordered autoregulation.

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