Iron deficiency and heart failure: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic perspectives

Ewa A. Jankowska*, Stephan von Haehling, Stefan D. Anker, Iain Macdougall, Piotr Ponikowski

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

    297 Citations (Scopus)


    Iron is a micronutrient essential for cellular energy and metabolism, necessary for maintaining body homoeostasis. Iron deficiency is an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). A major factor in the pathogenesis of anaemia, it is also a separate condition with serious clinical consequences (e.g. impaired exercise capacity) and poor prognosis in HF patients. Experimental evidence suggests that iron therapy in iron-deficient animals may activate molecular pathways that can be cardio-protective. Clinical studies have demonstrated favourable effects of i.v. iron on the functional status, quality of life, and exercise capacity in HF patients. It is hypothesized that i.v. iron supplementation may become a novel therapy in HF patients with iron deficiency.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)816-826
    Number of pages11
    JournalEuropean Heart Journal
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


    • Heart failure
    • Iron deficiency
    • Soluble transferrin receptor
    • Hepcidin
    • Prognosis
    • Exercise capacity
    • ANEMIA


    Dive into the research topics of 'Iron deficiency and heart failure: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic perspectives'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this