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Kinetic analysis of hyperpolarized data with minimum a priori knowledge: Hybrid maximum entropy and nonlinear least squares method (MEM/NLS)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2332-2342
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number6
Published1 Jun 2015

Bibliographical note

© 2014 The authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance.


King's Authors


To assess the feasibility of using a hybrid Maximum-Entropy/Nonlinear Least Squares (MEM/NLS) method for analyzing the kinetics of hyperpolarized dynamic data with minimum a priori knowledge.

Theory and Methods
A continuous distribution of rates obtained through the Laplace inversion of the data is used as a constraint on the NLS fitting to derive a discrete spectrum of rates. Performance of the MEM/NLS algorithm was assessed through Monte Carlo simulations and validated by fitting the longitudinal relaxation time curves of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate acquired at 9.4 Tesla and at three different flip angles. The method was further used to assess the kinetics of hyperpolarized pyruvate-lactate exchange acquired in vitro in whole blood and to re-analyze the previously published in vitro reaction of hyperpolarized 15N choline with choline kinase.

The MEM/NLS method was found to be adequate for the kinetic characterization of hyperpolarized in vitro time-series. Additional insights were obtained from experimental data in blood as well as from previously published 15N choline experimental data.

The proposed method informs on the compartmental model that best approximate the biological system observed using hyperpolarized 13C MR especially when the metabolic pathway assessed is complex or a new hyperpolarized probe is used.

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