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Latest Developments in the Management of Nut Allergies

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

H. A. Brough, R. Gourgey, S. Radulovic, J. C. Caubet, G. Lack, A. Anagnostou

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-110
Number of pages14
JournalCurrent Treatment Options in Allergy
Issue number2
Accepted/In press2021
PublishedJun 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: AA is the Principal Investigator for Aimmune Therapeutics phase III peanut oral immunotherapy trials and receives Institutional Funding. HB reports grants from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, NIH) subinvestigator for research by Aimmune and DBV Technologies and speaker honoraria from DBV Technologies and Sanofi. JC has received speaker honoraria from ThermoFisher Scientific. GL reports grants from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, NIH), Food Allergy & Research Education (FARE), MRC & Asthma UK Centre, UK Dept of Health through NIHR, National Peanut Board (NPB), UK Food Standards Agency (FSA), and The Davis Foundation during the conduct of the study and shareholder in DBV Technologies and Mighty Mission Me and scientific advisor for Novartis, Sanofi-Genyzme, Regeneron, and ALK-Abello. Publisher Copyright: © 2021, Crown. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

King's Authors


Purpose of review: In this review, we sought to describe the most recent advances in the dietary and medical management of peanut and tree nut allergy, including selective introduction and immunotherapy. Recent findings: Dietary updates include changes to labeling laws, improved information sources, and new apps for buying foods in shops and overseas to better protect individuals with nut allergies. There are still issues in the management of nut allergies in schools, such as parents having to resort to packed lunches instead of school meals and patients experiencing bullying. Air travel also poses concern, but additional resources are now available to travelers, and recent evidence suggest limited airborne exposure to nuts. The medical management of anaphylaxis is use of epinephrine; however, this remains underutilized. Needle length and administration devices have been recently debated considering the risk of bone penetration vs subcutaneous administration, and autoinjectors seem to deliver higher peak concentrations than syringes. Selective nut introduction has gained momentum in the last 5 years, demonstrating improved quality of life but with the need for motivated parents for continued consumption and available resources for challenges. Immunotherapy to nuts is also a rapidly developing field, with the balance of efficacy and safety being important considerations in the differing modes of administration. Summary: The management of nut allergies is a rapidly developing field, and dietary and medical management have progressed significantly in the last 5 years. Future research directions include improving safety and efficacy of food immunotherapy and examining patients’ goals for therapy and treatment outcomes.

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