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Left Ventricular Anatomy in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Beyond Basal Septal Hypertrophy

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Uxio Hermida Nunez, David Stojanovski, Betty Raman, Rina Ariga, Alistair Young, Valentina Carapella, Gerry Carr-White, Elena Lukaschuk, Stefan K Piechnik, Christopher M. Kramer, Milind Y. Desai, William Weintraub, Stefan Neubauer, Hugh Watkins, Pablo Lamata de la Orden

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging
Accepted/In press31 Oct 2022

King's Authors

Abstract

Background and Aims: Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (oHCM) is characterized by dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract (LVOT). Although this may be mediated by interplay between the hypertrophied septal wall, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and papillary muscle abnormalities, the mechanistic role of LV shape is still not fully understood. This study sought to identify the LV end diastolic morphology underpinning oHCM.
Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance images from 2,398 HCM individuals were obtained as part of the NHLBI HCM Registry. Three-dimensional LV models were constructed and used, together with a principal component analysis, to build a statistical shape model capturing shape variations. A set of linear discriminant axes were built to define and quantify (Z-scores) the characteristic LV morphology associated with LVOT obstruction (LVOTO) under different physiological conditions and the relationship between LV phenotype and genotype.
Results: The LV remodelling pattern in oHCM consisted not only of basal septal hypertrophy but a combination with LV lengthening, apical dilatation and LVOT inward remodelling. Salient differences were observed between obstructive cases at rest and stress. Genotype negative cases showed a tendency towards more obstructive phenotypes both at rest and stress.
Conclusions: LV anatomy underpinning oHCM consists of basal septal hypertrophy, apical dilatation, LV lengthening and LVOT inward remodelling. Differences between oHCM cases at rest and stress, as well as the relationship between LV phenotype and genotype, suggest different mechanisms for LVOTO. Proposed Z-scores render an opportunity of redefining management strategies based on the relationship between LV anatomy and LVOTO.

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