Heart failure is an important manifestation of diabetic heart disease. Before the development of symptomatic heart failure, as much as 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develop asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is highly prevalent in patients with T2DM and is a strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes including heart failure. Importantly regression of LVH with antihypertensive treatment especially renin angiotensin system blockers reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, this approach is only partially effective since LVH persists in 20% of patients with hypertension who attain target blood pressure, implicating the role of other potential mechanisms in the development of LVH. Moreover, the pathophysiology of LVH in T2DM remains unclear and is not fully explained by the hyperglycemia-associated cellular alterations. There is a growing body of evidence that supports the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and insulin resistance in mediating the development of LVH. The recognition of asymptomatic LVH may offer an opportune target for intervention with cardio-protective therapy in these at-risk patients. In this article, we provide a review of some of the key clinical studies that evaluated the effects of allopurinol, SGLT2 inhibitor and metformin in regressing LVH in patients with and without T2DM.
- SGLT2 inhibitors allopurinol diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) heart failure left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) metformin type 2 diabetes mellitus